Ancient Rome - AR Denarius - Julius Caesar (Roman Imperatorial) - Circa 44 BC - Mounted in 18K with .07 CTW Sapphire

Denomination:  AR Denarius                                                                                 

Date: 44 BC

Mint: Military Mint                                                                                

Weight: 3.36 g

Mount: 18K with .07CTW Sapphire

Grade: NGC (6557435-018) - Choice VF - Strike 5/5 - Surface 1/5

Description: Roman Imperatorial, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius.  Obverse: Elephant walking right trampling on a carnyx (a Celtic war trumpet) ornamented to look like a dragon, CAESAR below. Reverse: Implements of the pontificate: culullus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinkler), securis (sacrificial ax), and apex (priest's hat).

History: Minted after his invasion of Italy and crossing of the Rubicon on 10 January 49 B.C. until his defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus, this was the first coin type issued in Caesar's name. The elephant was the symbol of the Caesar family. According to legend, an ancestor received the name Caesar after single-handedly killing an elephant, probably in North Africa during the First Punic War, and 'Caesai' was the name for elephant in the local Punic language. The obverse was long described as an elephant trampling a snake, symbolizing good triumphing over evil. For the Romans, however, the snake was a symbol of healing, not evil. The image to the right (click it to see a larger photo) is ornamentation on the side of the Gundestrup cauldron (c. 150 - 1 B.C.) depicting three Celtic warriors sounding their carnyx war trumpets. Clearly, Caesar's elephant is trampling a carnyx and the obverse symbolizes Caesar's victory over the Celtic tribes of Gaul. The reverse refers to Caesar's office of Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Rome, a title now held by the Pope.